공주출장샵ト24시출장샵☪공주대구 안마방 후기《공주산본 마사지 후기》⇡‹공주대전 안마방 후기›♡공주에스테틱 마사지▣공주창원 안마방 후기☚ 공주마사지 사이트♬공주진주시 안마방⇋공주마사지 ㅅㅅ

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

창원출장샵
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

공주출장샵ウ예약금없는출장샵├공주대구 안마방 후기《공주대구 콜》☍‹공주안마방 모닝콜›➳공주철구 마사지♙공주울산 삼산동 출장♔공주다낭 마사지 vip﹌공주안마방 스텝χ공주순천 중국 마사지

The governments of more than 190 nations 광주불알 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

공주출장샵⇁예약♙공주대구 안마방 후기《공주안마방 어디까지》❖‹공주오산 타이 마사지›┱공주용인 마사지╈공주무한샷 안마방☏공주충주 마사지φ공주속초 모텔 가격♠공주장한평 안마방

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

공주출장샵↾예약⇟공주대구 안마방 후기《공주고양이 변비 마사지》☊‹공주성남 안마방›↫공주산호동 마사지⇉공주방콕 변형 마사지♐공주목포 여관⇢공주범계역 안마방♦공주동대구 모텔

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 바카라사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

공주출장샵ε출장부르는법囍공주대구 안마방 후기《공주강서구 안마방》█‹공주안마방 20대›☆공주건대 마사지↿공주삼천포 안마방♙공주서울 출장샵⇩공주렉시벨 마사지╜공주안마방 카드결제

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 충청남도황제 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

공주출장샵♣24시출장샵エ공주대구 안마방 후기《공주안양 안마방 후기》♬‹공주등 마사지 방법›┨공주타이 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ╕공주av 마사지▤공주안마방 황제의자✦공주안마방 서울☏공주모텔 마사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 대구출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

공주출장샵공주만수동 마사지

  • 진주안마방 도찰
  • 공주팔 마사지
  • 공주출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    공주출장샵↙예약➷공주대구 안마방 후기《공주안마방 여자친구》◄‹공주상봉동 안마방›⇡공주마석 안마방├공주울산 안마방 추천╚공주출장마사지▦공주고딩 안마방┑공주조건 만남 카페

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 칠곡안마방 퇴폐 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 군산출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    진주출장샵
    진주엄지 눈 근육 마사지 카지노사이트 증평연수구 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 온라인카지노 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    공주출장샵★예약금없는출장샵⇢공주대구 안마방 후기《공주동남아 마사지》┨‹공주세부 마사지›▪공주전주 여관◙공주별내 마사지⇋공주만남 방↽공주마사지 레전드 품번☄공주변비 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 정읍서울 출장샵 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    공주출장샵▪출장부르는법⚘공주대구 안마방 후기《공주영등포 마사지》0‹공주안마방 나이›◦공주진접 안마방チ공주야동 안마방リ공주저주파 마사지☺공주아빠의 젊은 애인과 끈적한 마사지┽공주안마방 fc2

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

    춘천타이 아로마 마사지
    서울다리 마사지 기계 온라인카지노 거창서울 출장안마
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    공주출장샵♧예약금없는출장샵╖공주대구 안마방 후기《공주구미 안마방》✥‹공주태국 마사지 서비스›♜공주박중현 안마방ღ공주을지로 안마방┵공주뒷목 마사지▨공주진주 가격↭공주주갤 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 울산출장샵 .

    공주출장샵◐예약금없는출장샵↼공주대구 안마방 후기《공주태국 마사지 야동》⊙‹공주광안리 안마방›♫공주낙성대 안마방└공주안마방 물다이×공주태국 에스코트 걸▧공주향남 안마방♡공주전화 tumblr

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 온라인카지노 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 고흥마사지 어플 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    공주출장샵✄출장부르는법ღ공주대구 안마방 후기《공주동대구 모텔》╍‹공주구글재펜›↙공주강남 안마방 가격☜공주심천 마사지♭공주마사지 유출①공주송원장 마사지♞공주천안안마

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    공주출장샵⇄예약♪ 공주대구 안마방 후기《공주소주잔 마사지》➚‹공주다이소 마사지›⇚공주마사지 간판구분♪공주오피♪공주출장 카톡☞공주스웨디시 마사지 단점♥공주태국 출장 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 양구크라운제이 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The lovejg.xyz , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 바카라사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 거제안마방 중독 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 진주출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    공주출장샵♠24시출장샵➽공주대구 안마방 후기《공주타이 마사지 아로마》☏‹공주엑소 안마방›➳공주아주동 마사지√공주진접 안마방⇙공주마사지 방법♪공주니시미야 코노미 마사지ζ공주야탑 안마방

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 온라인카지노 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 서울출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    공주출장샵✄예약금없는출장샵➦공주대구 안마방 후기《공주대구 동대구역 모텔》╅‹공주강서구 안마방›▫공주봉담 마사지♧공주안성 안마방➽공주마사지 검색χ공주마사지 추천◆공주안마방 처음

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    강원도남성 마사지
    구미출장안마 양구안마방 ssul 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    공주출장샵┢출장부르는법∴공주대구 안마방 후기《공주안마방 존댓말》£‹공주코 높아지는 마사지›→공주대구 여관☷공주에이스 안마방⊕공주안마방 알바 단속▬공주철산 안마방↘공주선릉 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.공주출장샵공주간석오거리 안마방£공주세븐 상추 안마방♘‹공주셀룰라이트 마사지›공주아내 마사지➡공주니시미야 코노미 마사지▫공주산호동 마사지╅공주출장마사지┱부산출장샵출장부르는법공주신주쿠 마사지↪공주셀룰라이트 마사지┘<공주신원동 마사지>공주포항 북구 안마방▨공주정왕동 안마방↤공주대전 안마방 추천⇩공주태국 마사지ヤ공주출장샵의성안마방 짜파게티공주대구 사우나 마사지☢공주방콕 변형 마사지↘﹝공주대학동 마사지﹞공주제주시 안마방╚공주강릉 안마방⇛공주한국인 마사지┇공주마사지 카페ホ공주안마방 누드♫공주타이 마사지 단속☏【공주손목 마사지】공주당진 마사지♘공주클리토리스 마사지➳공주주안 여관┴공주레즈 안마방┊공주대전 여관γ공주동대구 여관┷‹공주병점 안마방›공주출장최고시►공주몰카 안마방↭공주안마방 청룡열차♀공주운서동 안마방☈공주경마 시간┝공주연수동 마사지⇡「공주화곡 마사지」공주부천 마사지 추천♠공주안마방 에이스 토렌트⇀공주안마방 대기〓공주제기동 안마방█예약광양등 마사지 방법예약금없는출장샵공주시화 안마방☪공주안마방 하드╢《공주공유 마사지》공주오피스텔 마사지ツ공주안마방 러시아ノ공주video.fc2.com 마사지◎공주블라디보스톡 마사지╬ 공주출장샵공주출장샵대구출장안마공주타이 마사지 꿀팁공주출장대행공주용암동 마사지공주방콕 변형 마사지공주출장샵공주구미 아로마 마사지╃공주강북 안마방╘【공주대전 안마방】공주안마방 파워배드➹공주부천 안마방フ공주포르치오 마사지➹공주안마방 어디까지↾마산마사지 롤러

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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